Elements of Hawaiian Grammar

As Implied by Elbert/Pukui in Hawaiian Grammar

  1. The Sound System
    1. Consonants
    2. Vowels
    3. Word Stress
    4. Junctures
    5. Stress in Phrases and Sentences
    6. Pitch Levels
    7. Natural Fast Speech
    8. Dialect Variations
    9. Loan Words
    10. Relative Frequencies of Sounds
    11. Drift
    12. Notes on Orthography
  2. From Sentence to Affix
    1. Sentences
    2. Phrases
    3. Words
    4. Particles
    5. Affixes
  3. Classification of Verbs; Verblike Idioms
    1. Basis of the Classification
    2. Intransitive Verbs (vi)
    3. Transitive Verbs (vt)
    4. Stative Verbs (vs)
    5. Multiple-class Verbs
    6. Verblike Idioms
  4. Verb Markers
    1. Classification of Verb Markers
    2. Aspect Markers
    3. Tense Markers
    4. Mood Markers
    5. Verb Markers
  5. Verb Affixes and Thematic Consonants
    1. Prefixes and Reduplications
    2. Reduplications
      1. Types of Reduplication
      2. Meanings of Reduplications
    3. Prefixes to Verbs: Middle Layer
      1. Prefixes with Causative/Simulative Meanings
      2. Prefixes with Qualitative/Stative Meanings
      3. Other Prefixes
    4. The Causative/Simulative hoʻo- and Its Alternants
    5. Rare Suffixes
    6. Thematic Consonants and the Suffixes and Particles They Introduce
      1. Inventory
      2. Nominalizers
      3. Passive/Imperatives
      4. Transitivizers
      5. Possible Analyses
  6. Postposed Phrasal Elements
    1. Some Postposed Particles
    2. Directionals
    3. Ai
    4. ∅ Demonstratives ala, lā/la, ana
    5. Particles Following the ∅-Demonstratives
  7. Nouns and Substitutes, Locative Nouns, Compounds, Qualifiers
    1. Nouns
    2. Pronouns
    3. Demonstratives
      1. kē-Demonstratives
      2. ∅-Demonstratives nei and nā
      3. ia
      4. ua
      5. neia
      6. pē-Demonstratives
    4. Possessives
      1. k-Possessives
      2. ∅- and n-possessives
    5. Interrogatives
    6. Locative Nouns
    7. Compounds and Qualifiers
      1. Noun Compounds
      2. Verb and Noun-Verb Compounds
      3. Compound Proper Names
      4. Other Compounds
      5. Noun + Qualifier Sequences
  8. Prepositions
    1. Inventory of Prepositions
    2. Subject Marker: ʻo/∅
    3. Multifunctional i/iā and iō
      1. i/iā
      2. i/iā/iō Definite Locative
    4. Locative/Instrumental Manner: ma
    5. ā: Place to (Emphatice)
    6. Possessives
      1. a- and o-Possessives
      2. Verbs with a and o
      3. ∅-Possessives
      4. Fronted Possessives
    7. Comitative/Instrumental/Similitude: me
    8. Ablative: mai
    9. Agentive: e
    10. Vocative: /∅
    11. na and no
    12. Simulative: pē
    13. Appositional Prepositions
    14. Prepositional Phrases in Verbless Sentences
  9. Determiners, Numerals, and Plurals
    1. k-Words
    2. Articles
    3. Numerals
    4. Other Plural Markers
  10. Conjunctions and Complex Sentences
    1. Conjunctions
    2. Combining Phrases: Order
    3. Combining Sentences
    4. A Complex Sentence Analyzed
    5. The Role of Fronting: A Summary
  11. Interjections


The Sound System

Consonants

Vowels

Word Stress

Junctures

Stress in Phrases and Sentences

Pitch Levels

Natural Fast Speech

Dialect Variations

Loan Words

Relative Frequencies of Sounds

Drift

Notes on Orthography

From Sentence to Affix

Sentences

Phrases

Words

Particles

Affixes

Classification of Verbs; Verblike Idioms

Basis of the Classification

Intransitive Verbs (vi)

Transitive Verbs (vt)

Stative Verbs (vs)

Multiple-class Verbs

Verblike Idioms

Verb Markers

Classification of Verb Markers

Aspect Markers

Tense Markers

Mood Markers

Verb Markers

Verb Affixes and Thematic Consonants

Prefixes and Reduplications

Reduplications

Types of Reduplication
Meanings of Reduplications

Prefixes to Verbs: Middle Layer

Prefixes with Causative/Simulative Meanings
Prefixes with Qualitative/Stative Meanings
Other Prefixes

The Causative/Simulative hoʻo- and Its Alternants

Rare Suffixes

Thematic Consonants and the Suffixes and Particles They Introduce

Inventory
Nominalizers
Passive/Imperatives
Transitivizers
Possible Analyses

Postposed Phrasal Elements

Some Postposed Particles

Directionals

Ai

∅ Demonstratives ala, lā/la, ana

Particles Following the ∅-Demonstratives

Nouns and Substitutes, Locative Nouns, Compounds, Qualifiers

Nouns

Pronouns

Demonstratives

kē-Demonstratives
∅-Demonstratives nei and nā
ia
ua
neia
pē-Demonstratives

Possessives

k-Possessives
∅- and n-possessives

Interrogatives

Locative Nouns

Compounds and Qualifiers

Noun Compounds
Verb and Noun-Verb Compounds
Compound Proper Names
Other Compounds
Noun + Qualifier Sequences

Prepositions

Inventory of Prepositions

Subject Marker: ʻo/∅

Multifunctional i/iā and iō

i/iā
i/iā/iō Definite Locative

Locative/Instrumental Manner: ma

ā: Place to (Emphatice)

Possessives

a- and o-Possessives
Verbs with a and o
∅-Possessives
Fronted Possessives

Comitative/Instrumental/Similitude: me

Ablative: mai

Agentive: e

Vocative: /∅

na and no

Simulative: pē

Appositional Prepositions

Prepositional Phrases in Verbless Sentences

Determiners, Numerals, and Plurals

k-Words

Articles

Numerals

Other Plural Markers

Conjunctions and Complex Sentences

Conjunctions

Combining Phrases: Order

Combining Sentences

A Complex Sentence Analyzed

The Role of Fronting: A Summary

Interjections