Elements of Hawaiian Grammar
From the Kaiapuni Report

  1. Definite Equivalence Sentence (Pepeke ʻAike ʻO)
  2. Time of Day (Hola ʻEhia?)
  3. Indefinite (Pepeke ʻAike He)
  4. For What Purpose (I mea aha kēia?)
  5. I Have (I KIKINO naʻu)
  6. Someone Has (Pepeke He... kā/ko)
  7. Doesn't Have Any (Pepeke ʻAʻohe Oʻa)
  8. PRONOUN Doesn't Have Any (Pepeke ʻAʻohe Oʻa - PAPANI)
  9. Has NUMBER (Pepeke Helu Oʻa)
  10. PRONOUN Has NUMBER (Pepeke Helu Oʻa - PAPANI)
  11. Locational Sentence (Pepeke Henua)
  12. Emphatic Locational Sentence (Kālele Henua)
  13. Emphatic Possessive (Kālele Nonoʻa)
  14. Emphatic Origin (Kālele Kūmua)
  15. Emphatic Co-presence (Kālele Hoahana)
  16. Word Types (Nā MEMEʻA)
    1. Transitive Verbs (HAMANI)
    2. Intransitive Verbs (HEHELE)
    3. Stative Verbs (ʻAʻANO)
    4. Passive Verb Forms (ʻIAE)
    5. Nouns (KIKINO)
  17. Simple Verb Sentences (Pepeke Painu)
    1. Tense Markers (Nā Māka Painu)
      1. ∅ PAINU
      2. Ua PAINU
      3. Ua PAINU aku nei
      4. Ke PAINU nei
      5. E PAINU ana
      6. E PAINU ana
      7. E PAINU
    2. Nā Māka Painu (Hōʻole)
      1. ʻAʻole ∅ PAINU
      2. ʻAʻole i PAINU
      3. ʻAʻole i PAINU aku nei
      4. ʻAʻole e PAINU nei
      5. ʻAʻole e PAINU ana
      6. ʻAʻole e PAINU
      7. Mai PAINU
  18. Consecutive (Pepeke Painu Akula)
  19. Self (Painu Nonoʻa Iho)
  20. Finally (ʻAkahi a Painu)
  21. Emphatic Actor (Kālele ʻĀkena)
  22. Emphatic Context (Kālele Kūlana Painu)
  23. Intentional Clause (Pepeke + Kuʻa)
  24. Until (...a hiki i...)
  25. Locational Verb Sentence (Pepeke Henua Painu)
  26. Specific Verbs Requiring Care (Nā Painu Kikoʻī E Makaʻala Ai)
    1. Transitive and Intransitive
    2. Stative
      1. Loaʻa
      2. Lilo
      3. Hiki + Transitive/Intransitve
      4. Hiki + Stative/Passive
      5. Maopopo
      6. Pau
      7. Puni
      8. Koe
  27. In Progress (Hele a ʻAʻano)
  28. Almost (Kokoke)
  29. Almost (ʻAneʻane)
  30. Comparatives (ʻAʻano no ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana)
  31. Like (e like me)
  32. Like a (ME he mea ala)
  33. Descriptors (Nā Kāhulu)
    1. Single Word Descriptors for Noun (Kāhulu Hua ʻŌlelo KIKINO)
    2. Single Word Descriptors for Verb (Kāhulu Hua ʻŌlelo PAINU)
    3. Phrase Descriptors for Verb (Kāhulu ʻAwe Hoahana PAINU)
  34. Descriptive Phrases (Kāhulu Pepeke Painu)
    1. No New Subject (...Piko Hou ʻOle)
    2. New Subject (...Piko Hou)
  35. Specific Descriptive Phrases With New Subject (Kāhulu Pepeke Piko Hou Kikoʻī)
  36. Possessive Descriptive Phrases (Kāhulu Pepeke Nonoʻa)
  37. Verb Nominalization (Kiʻa Pepeke)
  38. Stative Verb Warnings (ʻAʻano: E makaʻala)
  39. About (E pili ana i/iā)
  40. Somewhere Else (I kahi ʻē)
  41. Maybe (Maliʻa paha, PEPEKE)
  42. If (Inā)
  43. But (Akā)
  44. Then (A laila)
  45. Therefor (No laila)
  46. Because (No Ka Mea)
  47. And (A)
  48. And (A ME)
  49. Locative Nouns (Iʻoa Henua)
  50. Clarifying Proper Noun (Hoakāka)
  51. Prepositions (Nā ʻAmi)
    1. Locational Prepositions (ʻAmi Henua: ma, i, iā)
    2. With Or Like (ʻAmi Hoahana: me)
    3. Ablative (ʻAmi Kūmua: mai)
    4. Ablative (ʻAmi Kūmua: maiā)
    5. Possessive (ʻAmi Nonoʻa: no)
    6. Possessive (ʻAmi Nonoʻa: na)
    7. Agentive (ʻĀkena ʻIae: e)
    8. Agentive (ʻAmi ʻĀkena ʻAʻano: i, iā)
    9. Objective (ʻAmi Lauka: i, iā)
    10. Vocative (ʻAmi hea: e)
  52. Noun Markers? (Nā Māka)
    1. Possessive O (Māka Oʻa: o)
    2. Possessive A (Māka Oʻa: a)
    3. Subject Article (Māka Piko: ʻo)
    4. No Subject Article (Māka Piko: ∅)
  53. Pronouns (Nā PAPANI)
  54. Associates (Iʻoa Maʻuli/Paku + mā)
  55. Ordinals (Helu ʻEhia)
  56. Numerals (ʻEhia Mea)
  57. Postfix Ordinals (Ka Mea Helu ʻEhia)
  58. The First (Ka Mua O Ka Mea)
  59. Postfix Numerals (Nā Mea ʻEhia)
  60. Distributive Numerals (Pākahi)
  61. Approximate Numerals (Ma kahi o ka #)
  62. Articles (Nā Kaʻi)
    1. Specific (Kikoʻī)
    2. Non-specific (Kikoʻī ʻole)
  63. Possessive Articles (Nā Kaʻi Oʻa)
    1. With O (Kinoʻō)
    2. With S (Kinoʻā)
  64. Temporal Nouns (Nā MANAWA)
    1. ka lā, ke ao, ke kakahiaka, ke awakea, ...
    2. Coming (kēia MANAWA aʻe)
    3. Past (kēlā MANAWA aku nei)
    4. This (ka MANAWA nei)
    5. This (kēia MANAWA)
    6. Yesterday (ka lā ma nehinei)
    7. Tomorrow (ka lā ʻapōpō)
  65. Days Of The Week (Nā Lā O Ka Pule)
  66. Months Of The Year (Nā Mahina O Ka Makahiki)
  67. Days Of The Month (Nā Pō Mahina)
  68. Amplifying Particles (Hune ʻAʻau)
  69. Affirmative Interrogative (Pepeke, ʻAʻole Anei?)
  70. Affirmative Interrogative (Pepeke, ʻeā)
  71. The Family (Ka ʻOhana)
  72. Miscellaneous (Nā Mea Like ʻOle)


Definite Equivalence Sentence (Pepeke ʻAike ʻO)

Time of Day (Hola ʻEhia?)

Indefinite (Pepeke ʻAike He)

For What Purpose (I mea aha kēia?)

I Have (I KIKINO naʻu)

Someone Has (Pepeke He... kā/ko)

Doesn't Have Any (Pepeke ʻAʻohe Oʻa)

PRONOUN Doesn't Have Any (Pepeke ʻAʻohe Oʻa - PAPANI)

Has NUMBER (Pepeke Helu Oʻa)

PRONOUN Has NUMBER (Pepeke Helu Oʻa - PAPANI)

Locational Sentence (Pepeke Henua)

Emphatic Locational Sentence (Kālele Henua)

Emphatic Possessive (Kālele Nonoʻa)

Emphatic Origin (Kālele Kūmua)

Emphatic Co-presence (Kālele Hoahana)

Word Types (Nā MEMEʻA)

Transitive Verbs (HAMANI)

Intransitive Verbs (HEHELE)

Stative Verbs (ʻAʻANO)

Passive Verb Forms (ʻIAE)

Nouns (KIKINO)

Simple Verb Sentences (Pepeke Painu)

Tense Markers (Nā Māka Painu)

∅ PAINU
Ua PAINU
Ua PAINU aku nei
Ke PAINU nei
E PAINU ana
E PAINU ana
E PAINU

Nā Māka Painu (Hōʻole)

ʻAʻole ∅ PAINU
ʻAʻole i PAINU
ʻAʻole i PAINU aku nei
ʻAʻole e PAINU nei
ʻAʻole e PAINU ana
ʻAʻole e PAINU
Mai PAINU

Consecutive (Pepeke Painu Akula)

Self (Painu Nonoʻa Iho)

Finally (ʻAkahi a Painu)

Emphatic Actor (Kālele ʻĀkena)

Emphatic Context (Kālele Kūlana Painu)

Intentional Clause (Pepeke + Kuʻa)

Until (...a hiki i...)

Locational Verb Sentence (Pepeke Henua Painu)

Specific Verbs Requiring Care (Nā Painu Kikoʻī E Makaʻala Ai)

Transitive and Intransitive

Stative

Loaʻa
Lilo
Hiki + Transitive/Intransitve
Hiki + Stative/Passive
Maopopo
Pau
Puni
Koe

In Progress (Hele a ʻAʻano)

Exceedingly (He Keu Aku)

Almost (Kokoke)

Almost (ʻAneʻane)

Comparatives (ʻAʻano no ka hoʻohālikelike ʻana)

Like (e like me)

Like a (ME he mea ala)

Descriptors (Nā Kāhulu)

Single Word Descriptors for Noun (Kāhulu Hua ʻŌlelo KIKINO)

Single Word Descriptors for Verb (Kāhulu Hua ʻŌlelo PAINU)

Phrase Descriptors for Verb (Kāhulu ʻAwe Hoahana PAINU)

Descriptive Phrases (Kāhulu Pepeke Painu)

No New Subject (...Piko Hou ʻOle)

New Subject (...Piko Hou)

Specific Descriptive Phrases With New Subject (Kāhulu Pepeke Piko Hou Kikoʻī)

Possessive Descriptive Phrases (Kāhulu Pepeke Nonoʻa)

Verb Nominalization (Kiʻa Pepeke)

Stative Verb Warnings (ʻAʻano: E makaʻala)

About (E pili ana i/iā)

Somewhere Else (I kahi ʻē)

Maybe (Maliʻa paha, PEPEKE)

If (Inā)

But (Akā)

Then (A laila)

Therefor (No laila)

Because (No Ka Mea)

And (A)

And (A ME)

Locative Nouns (Iʻoa Henua)

Clarifying Proper Noun (Hoakāka)

Prepositions (Nā ʻAmi)

Locational Prepositions (ʻAmi Henua: ma, i, iā)

With Or Like (ʻAmi Hoahana: me)

Ablative (ʻAmi Kūmua: mai)

Ablative (ʻAmi Kūmua: maiā)

Possessive (ʻAmi Nonoʻa: no)

Possessive (ʻAmi Nonoʻa: na)

Agentive (ʻĀkena ʻIae: e)

Agentive (ʻAmi ʻĀkena ʻAʻano: i, iā)

Objective (ʻAmi Lauka: i, iā)

Vocative (ʻAmi hea: e)

Noun Markers? (Nā Māka)

Possessive O (Māka Oʻa: o)

Possessive A (Māka Oʻa: a)

Subject Article (Māka Piko: ʻo)

No Subject Article (Māka Piko: ∅)

Pronouns (Nā PAPANI)

Associates (Iʻoa Maʻuli/Paku + mā)

Ordinals (Helu ʻEhia)

Numerals (ʻEhia Mea)

Postfix Ordinals (Ka Mea Helu ʻEhia)

The First (Ka Mua O Ka Mea)

Postfix Numerals (Nā Mea ʻEhia)

Distributive Numerals (Pākahi)

Approximate Numerals (Ma kahi o ka #)

Articles (Nā Kaʻi)

Specific (Kikoʻī)

Non-specific (Kikoʻī ʻole)

Possessive Articles (Nā Kaʻi Oʻa)

With O (Kinoʻō)

With S (Kinoʻā)

Temporal Nouns (Nā MANAWA)

ka lā, ke ao, ke kakahiaka, ke awakea, ...

Coming (kēia MANAWA aʻe)

Past (kēlā MANAWA aku nei)

This (ka MANAWA nei)

This (kēia MANAWA)

Yesterday (ka lā ma nehinei)

Tomorrow (ka lā ʻapōpō)

Days Of The Week (Nā Lā O Ka Pule)

Months Of The Year (Nā Mahina O Ka Makahiki)

Days Of The Month (Nā Pō Mahina)

Amplifying Particles (Hune ʻAʻau)

Affirmative Interrogative (Pepeke, ʻAʻole Anei?)

Affirmative Interrogative (Pepeke, ʻeā)

The Family (Ka ʻOhana)

Miscellaneous (Nā Mea Like ʻOle)