Elements of Hawaiian Grammar

Nā Kai ʻEwalu


  1. Chapter 1
    1. Letters (Nā Huapalapala o ka Pīʻāpā ʻŌiwi
    2. Diacriticals (Ka ʻOkina a me ke Kahakō)
    3. Numbers (Nā Huahaku Helu)
    4. Proper  and Common Terms (Ka ʻIoa a me ka Memeʻa)
    5. Definite Articles ("Ka" a me "Ke")
    6. Particles (Nā Kaʻi)
    7. Prepositions (Nā ʻAmi a me ka Poke)
    8. Possessive O (Ke Kāhulu Nonoʻa Iki me "O")
    9. Literal and Natural Translation (Ka Unuhi Hāiki a me ka Unuhi Laulā)
    10. Categories of Words (Nā Waeʻanona Huaʻōlelo o ka Papaʻōlelo)
    11. Subject in Questions and Responses (Ke Kamaʻilio ʻana)
  2. Chapter 2
    1. Names, Place Names and Pronouns (Ka Iʻoa Kuhane, ka Iʻoa Paku a me ka Papani)
    2. Numerals and Ordinals (Nā Huahelu)
    3. Locational Sentences (Ka Pepeke Henua "Aia" (a me Kona Kino Hōʻole)
    4. Descriptors (Ke Kāhulu me ka Pepeke)
    5. Definte Proper Particle "ʻO" and Vocative Particle "E" (Ka ʻAmi Piko "ʻO" a me ka ʻAmi Hea "E")
    6. Sentence Components (Ke Kiʻi o ka Pepeke a me ka Lāpuʻu o ka ʻAwe)
  3. Chapter 3
    1. Simple Verb Sentences (Ka Pepeke Painu a  me Kona Kino Hōʻole)
    2. Common Word Descriptors (Ke Kāhulu Memeʻa)
    3. Thing/Person (Ka Huaʻōlelo "Mea")
    4. Context of a Conversation (Ka Hoʻomoeā ʻana)
  4. Chapter 4
    1. Demonstrative Pronouns ("Kēnā" a me "Kēlā")
    2. Locatives ("Laila" - Kēnā Wahi - a me "ʻŌ" - Kēlā Wahi)
    3. Equational Sentences (Ka Pepeke ʻAike)
    4. Negative Equational Sentences (Ke Kino Hōʻole o ka Pepeke ʻAike)
    5. Conjunctions (Nā Kuʻi "A Me" a me "A")
  5. Chapter 5
    1. Stress in Pronunciation (Ke Kālele ma ka Puana Hua'ōlelo)
    2. The Four Sentence Types (Ke Kapaʻī ʻana i nā ʻAno Pepeke ʻEhā)
    3. Types of Descriptors (Nā ʻAno Kāhulu ʻOkoʻa)
    4. Question Structure (Ka Nīnau ʻana ma nā ʻAno Pepeke ʻEhā)
    5. The Negative of the Four Sentence Types (Ka Hōʻole ʻana i nā ʻAno Pepeke ʻEhā)
  6. Chapter 6
    1. Demonstratives and Locatives (Ke Kaʻi "ia" a me ka Iʻoa Paku "Laila")
    2. Plurals ("Mau" a me "Nā" no ka Māka Helunui ʻana i nā Memeʻa)
    3. Proper Noun Plurals ("Mā" no ka Māka Helunui ʻana i nā Iʻoa)
    4. Dual and Plural Pronouns (Nā Papani Helulua me ka Helulehu)
    5. Preposition "i/iā" (Ka ʻAmi Kuhilana "I" "To" - Iʻoa Paku a me ka Memeʻa - a me "lā" "To" - Iʻoa Kuhane a me ka Papani)
  7. Chapter 7
    1. Prepositions "I/Iā" (Nā ʻAmi Lauka: "I/Iā")
    2. Subjects and Objects (Ka ʻĀkea a me ka ʻŌkena)
    3. Preposition "i/iā" with Place Names (Nā ʻAmi "I" me "Iā" me nā Iʻoa Paku)
    4. Imperatives (Nā Māka Painu Kauoha: "E" a me "Mai"
    5. Infinitive Connector ("E" "To" me ka Painu)
  8. Chapter 8
    1. Tense Markers "Ua", "Ke-nei/ala", "E-ana (1)", "E-ana (2)", and ∅ (Nā Māka Painu: "Ua", "Ke-nei/ala", "E-ana (1)", "E-ana (2)", a me ∅)
    2. Difference Between Tense Markers "E" and "E-ana (1)" (K ʻOkoʻa ma waeno o nā Māka Painu "E" a me "E-ana (1)")
    3. Negatives of the Tense Markers (Nā Kino Hōʻole o nā Māka Painu)
    4. Almost "Kokoke" (Kokoke e)
  9. Chapter 9
    1. Sentence Structure and Clauses (Ka Waeʻanona Lālā me ka Poke)
    2. Conjunctions (Ke Kuʻi)
    3. Descriptors (Ke Kāhulu)
    4. Main and Subordinate Clauses (Ka Pepeke Makua me ka Pepeke Keiki)
    5. Numerals as Particles, Subjects and Descriptors (Nā Huahelu ma ke ʻAno he Kaʻi, he Poʻo a he Kāhulu)
  10. Chapter 10
    1. The Hawaiian Family (Ka ʻOhana Hawaiʻi)
    2. "O" an "A" Possessives (Ke Kinoʻō a me ke Kinoʻā)
    3. Possessive Particles: "Ko/Kā" and "O/A" with Pronouns and Proper Nouns (Ke Kaʻi Nonoʻa: "Ko/Kā" a me "O/A" me nā Papani a me nā Iʻoa)
    4. Existence and Quantity Sentences (Ka Pepeke Heʻo)
    5. ʻOkina to Start a Clause (Ka ʻOkina ma ka Hoʻomaka ʻana o ka Poke)
    6. Diphthongs (Nā Hēwoela: Au/Ao, Ai/Ae, Oi/Oe)
  11. Chapter 11
    1. Descriptor after Measure (Ke Kāhulu ma hope o Ka Mea Ana)
    2. Locative Nouns (Nā Iʻoa Hena - He ʻAno Iʻoa Paku)
    3. Possessive Abundance (Ka Pepeke Nonoʻa "Nui")
    4. More on "Ko/Kā" and "O/A" ("Ko/Kā" a me "O/A" i Hoʻomau ʻia)
  12. Chapter 12
    1. Directionals (Nā Hunekuhi: "Mai", "Aku", "Iho", "Aʻe")
    2. Comparatives (ʻOi aku)
    3. Telling Time (Ka Helu Manawa ʻana)
    4. Pronunciation in Song (Ka Puana ʻana ma ka Hīmeni ʻana)
  13. Chapter 13
    1. More on the Hawaiian Family (Ka ʻOhana Hawaiʻi - Hoʻomau ʻia)
    2. Possessive Sentences with "He" (Ka Pepeke Nonoʻa "He")
    3. Possessive Sentences with Numerals (Ka Pepeke Nonoʻa me ka Huahelu)
    4. Comparing the Three Possessive Sentence Types (Ka Hoʻohālikelike ʻana i nā Pepeke Nonoʻa ʻEkolu)
  14. Chapter 14
    1. Review
  15. Chapter 15
    1. Correcting Mistakes (Ka Hoʻoponopono Hemahema)
    2. Possession (Ka Unuhi ʻana i ka ʻŌlelo Pelekānia "Have")
  16. Chapter 16
    1. From (Mai/Maiā "From")
    2. Situational and Nominal Sentences (Ka Pepeke Poʻo Kiʻa)
    3. Benefactive/Causative ("No" a me "Na" "Belong to", "For")
    4. Future Tense in Non-Verbal Sentences ("Ana" i Māka Kaime)
  17. Chapter 17
    1. Pronominal Conjunctions (Nā Kuʻi Papani: Māua ʻo, ʻOlua ʻo, ʻLāua ʻo)
    2. Plural Nouns with Kahakō (Nā Kikino Helunui Kahakō)
    3. Stress and the Third to Last Syllable (Ke Kālele a me ka Woela ʻEkolu mai Hope mai)
    4. Transitive and Intransitive Verbs (Ka ʻOkoʻa ma Waena o ka Hamani a me ka Hehele)
    5. Intransitive and Stative Verbs (Ka ʻOkoʻa ma Waena o ka Hamani a me ka Hehele)
    6. Agentive Emphasis (Ka Pepeke Kālele ʻĀkena)
  18. Chapter 18
    1. Causative/Simulative Verbs (No "Hoʻo-" a me Kona mau Kino)
    2. Passivization of  Transitive Verbs (Ka Hōʻiae ʻana i ka Hamani)
    3. Passive vs Past (No ka "Passive" a me ka "Past" ma ka ʻŌlelo Pelekānia)
    4. Pronouns Not Used for Passive (Ka ʻOkoʻa o "ʻIa" mai nā Papani "Lāua" me "Lākou")
    5. Placement of Descriptor (Ka ʻOkoʻa o ke Kūlana o ka Painu o ka ʻŌlelo Pelekānia mai ko ka ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi)
    6. Placement of Passivization ʻIa (Kahi Waiho o ka Huneʻiae ma ka Poke Painu)
  19. Chapter 19
    1. Agent with Passivization ʻIa (Ka Hoʻopiha Pono ʻana i ka ʻIae)
    2. Agent with Stative Verbs (La Hoʻopina Pono ʻana i ka Hiaʻo)
    3. Switching Position of the Agent and Object (Ka Loli ʻana o ke Kaʻina o ka Piko a me ka ʻAwe)
    4. Difference between the Intransitive and the Stative (Ka ʻOkoʻa o ka Manaʻo o ka Hamani mai ka ʻAʻano)
  20. Chapter 20
    1. Stative Verb "Loaʻa" and "Have" (Ka ʻAʻano ʻo "Loaʻa" a me ka Unuhi ʻana iā "Have")
    2. Emphasizing the Agent and the Object (Ke Kālele ʻana i ka ʻĀkena a ʻŌkena paha)
    3. Specific Pronunciation Issues (Ka Nāʻana ;ana i nā ʻOkoʻa o ka Manaʻo o ka Puana ʻana)
    4. Phrase Order (Ka Nāʻana ʻana i nā ʻAoʻao Hoʻokaʻina o ka ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi)
    5. Interpretation of Stative Verb with Agent (Ka Unuhi ʻana i nā Alohuli ʻIae a me ka Hiaʻo)
  21. Chapter 21
    1. Subordinate Clause as Adverb (Ka ʻAwe Kāloko)
    2. Ability (Hiki)
    3. Ordinal Particles (Nā ʻĪkoi Huahelu Kaʻina)
    4. The Other (Ka Unuhi ʻana iā "The Other", "My Other" a pēlā aku)
    5. Subject Emphatic Particles (Na Huneʻano a me nā Huneʻaʻau)
    6. Syllable Stress (Ke Kiko Poke Kālele a me ka ʻOkina Kauwaena)
    7. Self-correctional Expressions (Nā Huahoʻololoiāhili)
  22. Chapter 22
    1. Nominalized Verbs (Ke Kiʻa Pepeke)
      1. Indicating Before/After (me ka Manaʻo "Before/After")
      2. Indicating When (me ka Manaʻo "When")
      3. Indicating Intent (me ka Manaʻo "In Order To")
    2. Distinguishing between "ʻAna" and "Ana" (Ka Hōʻokoʻa ʻana iā "ʻAna" a me "Ana")
    3. Collective Noun Article and Pronoun
  23. Chapter 23
    1. Should/Must (Pono E)
    2. Possessive Nought  (Ka Pepeke Nonoʻa Huahelu i Pani no ka Pepeke Painu)
    3. Situational Emphasis (Ka Pepeke Kālele Kūlana)
    4. Negating ʻOle (ʻOle)
  24. Chapter 24
    1. Abstract Article (He mau ʻAoʻao hou o ke Kaʻi Hōiloa "He")
    2. Particles with Numerals (He mau ʻAoʻao hou o nā Heluhelu)
    3. Situational Emphasis in Questions and Clauses (Ke Kālele Kūlana ma ka Nīnau a me ka Paukū)
    4. Subordinate Clause with New Subjet (Ka Nīnau Pepeke Nonoʻa me ke Kāhulu Pepeke Piko)
  25. Chapter 25
    1. Indefinite and Abstract Particle in Subject ("He" a me "I" ma ke Poʻo)
    2. Indefinite and Abstract Particle with Recipient ("He" a me "I" me "No/Na")
    3. Become (Lilo - Become/Be)
    4. Taken/Lost (Lilo - Taken/Lost to)
  26. Chapter 26
    1. Similarity (Like)
    2. Locational Emphasis with Aia/Eia (Eia, Aia me nā Pepeke ʻOkoʻa)
    3. Present Distant Tense Markers (Ka Māka Paina: "Ke-ala / Ke-maila")
 

Chapter 1

Letters (Nā Huapalapala o ka Pīʻāpā ʻŌiwi

Diacriticals (Ka ʻOkina a me ke Kahakō)

Numbers (Nā Huahaku Helu)

Proper  and Common Terms (Ka ʻIoa a me ka Memeʻa)

Definite Articles ("Ka" a me "Ke")

Particles (Nā Kaʻi)

Prepositions (Nā ʻAmi a me ka Poke)

Possessive O (Ke Kāhulu Nonoʻa Iki me "O")

Literal and Natural Translation (Ka Unuhi Hāiki a me ka Unuhi Laulā)

Categories of Words (Nā Waeʻanona Huaʻōlelo o ka Papaʻōlelo)

Subject in Questions and Responses (Ke Kamaʻilio ʻana)

 

Chapter 2

Names, Place Names and Pronouns (Ka Iʻoa Kuhane, ka Iʻoa Paku a me ka Papani)

Numerals and Ordinals (Nā Huahelu)

Locational Sentences (Ka Pepeke Henua "Aia" (a me Kona Kino Hōʻole)

Descriptors (Ke Kāhulu me ka Pepeke)

Definte Proper Particle "ʻO" and Vocative Particle "E" (Ka ʻAmi Piko "ʻO" a me ka ʻAmi Hea "E")

Sentence Components (Ke Kiʻi o ka Pepeke a me ka Lāpuʻu o ka ʻAwe)

 

Chapter 3

Simple Verb Sentences (Ka Pepeke Painu a  me Kona Kino Hōʻole)

Common Word Descriptors (Ke Kāhulu Memeʻa)

Thing/Person (Ka Huaʻōlelo "Mea")

Context of a Conversation (Ka Hoʻomoeā ʻana)

 

Chapter 4

Demonstrative Pronouns ("Kēnā" a me "Kēlā")

Locatives ("Laila" - Kēnā Wahi - a me "ʻŌ" - Kēlā Wahi)

Equational Sentences (Ka Pepeke ʻAike)

Negative Equational Sentences (Ke Kino Hōʻole o ka Pepeke ʻAike)

Conjunctions (Nā Kuʻi "A Me" a me "A")

 

Chapter 5

Stress in Pronunciation (Ke Kālele ma ka Puana Hua'ōlelo)

The Four Sentence Types (Ke Kapaʻī ʻana i nā ʻAno Pepeke ʻEhā)

Types of Descriptors (Nā ʻAno Kāhulu ʻOkoʻa)

Question Structure (Ka Nīnau ʻana ma nā ʻAno Pepeke ʻEhā)

The Negative of the Four Sentence Types (Ka Hōʻole ʻana i nā ʻAno Pepeke ʻEhā)

 

Chapter 6

Demonstratives and Locatives (Ke Kaʻi "ia" a me ka Iʻoa Paku "Laila")

Plurals ("Mau" a me "Nā" no ka Māka Helunui ʻana i nā Memeʻa)

Proper Noun Plurals ("Mā" no ka Māka Helunui ʻana i nā Iʻoa)

Dual and Plural Pronouns (Nā Papani Helulua me ka Helulehu)

Preposition "i/iā" (Ka ʻAmi Kuhilana "I" "To" - Iʻoa Paku a me ka Memeʻa - a me "lā" "To" - Iʻoa Kuhane a me ka Papani)

 

Chapter 7

Prepositions "I/Iā" (Nā ʻAmi Lauka: "I/Iā")

Subjects and Objects (Ka ʻĀkea a me ka ʻŌkena)

Preposition "i/iā" with Place Names (Nā ʻAmi "I" me "Iā" me nā Iʻoa Paku)

Imperatives (Nā Māka Painu Kauoha: "E" a me "Mai"

Infinitive Connector ("E" "To" me ka Painu)

 

Chapter 8

Tense Markers "Ua", "Ke-nei/ala", "E-ana (1)", "E-ana (2)", and (Nā Māka Painu: "Ua", "Ke-nei/ala", "E-ana (1)", "E-ana (2)", a me )

Difference Between Tense Markers "E" and "E-ana (1)" (K ʻOkoʻa ma waeno o nā Māka Painu "E" a me "E-ana (1)")

Negatives of the Tense Markers (Nā Kino Hōʻole o nā Māka Painu)

Almost "Kokoke" (Kokoke e)

 

Chapter 9

Sentence Structure and Clauses (Ka Waeʻanona Lālā me ka Poke)

Conjunctions (Ke Kuʻi)

Descriptors (Ke Kāhulu)

Main and Subordinate Clauses (Ka Pepeke Makua me ka Pepeke Keiki)

Numerals as Particles, Subjects and Descriptors (Nā Huahelu ma ke ʻAno he Kaʻi, he Poʻo a he Kāhulu)

 

Chapter 10

The Hawaiian Family (Ka ʻOhana Hawaiʻi)

"O" an "A" Possessives (Ke Kinoʻō a me ke Kinoʻā)

Possessive Particles: "Ko/Kā" and "O/A" with Pronouns and Proper Nouns (Ke Kaʻi Nonoʻa: "Ko/Kā" a me "O/A" me nā Papani a me nā Iʻoa)

Existence and Quantity Sentences (Ka Pepeke Heʻo)

ʻOkina to Start a Clause (Ka ʻOkina ma ka Hoʻomaka ʻana o ka Poke)

Diphthongs (Nā Hēwoela: Au/Ao, Ai/Ae, Oi/Oe)

 

Chapter 11

Descriptor after Measure (Ke Kāhulu ma hope o Ka Mea Ana)

Locative Nouns (Nā Iʻoa Hena - He ʻAno Iʻoa Paku)

Possessive Abundance (Ka Pepeke Nonoʻa "Nui")

More on "Ko/Kā" and "O/A" ("Ko/Kā" a me "O/A" i Hoʻomau ʻia)

 

Chapter 12

Directionals (Nā Hunekuhi: "Mai", "Aku", "Iho", "Aʻe")

Comparatives (ʻOi aku)

Telling Time (Ka Helu Manawa ʻana)

Pronunciation in Song (Ka Puana ʻana ma ka Hīmeni ʻana)

 

Chapter 13

More on the Hawaiian Family (Ka ʻOhana Hawaiʻi - Hoʻomau ʻia)

Possessive Sentences with "He" (Ka Pepeke Nonoʻa "He")

Possessive Sentences with Numerals (Ka Pepeke Nonoʻa me ka Huahelu)

Comparing the Three Possessive Sentence Types (Ka Hoʻohālikelike ʻana i nā Pepeke Nonoʻa ʻEkolu)

 

Chapter 14

Review

 

Chapter 15

Correcting Mistakes (Ka Hoʻoponopono Hemahema)

Possession (Ka Unuhi ʻana i ka ʻŌlelo Pelekānia "Have")

 

Chapter 16

From (Mai/Maiā "From")

Situational and Nominal Sentences (Ka Pepeke Poʻo Kiʻa)

Benefactive/Causative ("No" a me "Na" "Belong to", "For")

Future Tense in Non-Verbal Sentences ("Ana" i Māka Kaime)

 

Chapter 17

Pronominal Conjunctions (Nā Kuʻi Papani: Māua ʻo, ʻOlua ʻo, ʻLāua ʻo)

Plural Nouns with Kahakō (Nā Kikino Helunui Kahakō)

Stress and the Third to Last Syllable (Ke Kālele a me ka Woela ʻEkolu mai Hope mai)

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs (Ka ʻOkoʻa ma Waena o ka Hamani a me ka Hehele)

Intransitive and Stative Verbs (Ka ʻOkoʻa ma Waena o ka Hamani a me ka Hehele)

Agentive Emphasis (Ka Pepeke Kālele ʻĀkena)

 

Chapter 18

Causative/Simulative Verbs (No "Hoʻo-" a me Kona mau Kino)

Passivization of  Transitive Verbs (Ka Hōʻiae ʻana i ka Hamani)

Passive vs Past (No ka "Passive" a me ka "Past" ma ka ʻŌlelo Pelekānia)

Pronouns Not Used for Passive (Ka ʻOkoʻa o "ʻIa" mai nā Papani "Lāua" me "Lākou")

Placement of Descriptor (Ka ʻOkoʻa o ke Kūlana o ka Painu o ka ʻŌlelo Pelekānia mai ko ka ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi)

Placement of Passivization ʻIa (Kahi Waiho o ka Huneʻiae ma ka Poke Painu)

 

Chapter 19

Agent with Passivization ʻIa (Ka Hoʻopiha Pono ʻana i ka ʻIae)

Agent with Stative Verbs (La Hoʻopina Pono ʻana i ka Hiaʻo)

Switching Position of the Agent and Object (Ka Loli ʻana o ke Kaʻina o ka Piko a me ka ʻAwe)

Difference between the Intransitive and the Stative (Ka ʻOkoʻa o ka Manaʻo o ka Hamani mai ka ʻAʻano)

 

Chapter 20

Stative Verb "Loaʻa" and "Have" (Ka ʻAʻano ʻo "Loaʻa" a me ka Unuhi ʻana iā "Have")

Emphasizing the Agent and the Object (Ke Kālele ʻana i ka ʻĀkena a ʻŌkena paha)

Specific Pronunciation Issues (Ka Nāʻana ;ana i nā ʻOkoʻa o ka Manaʻo o ka Puana ʻana)

Phrase Order (Ka Nāʻana ʻana i nā ʻAoʻao Hoʻokaʻina o ka ʻŌlelo Hawaiʻi)

Interpretation of Stative Verb with Agent (Ka Unuhi ʻana i nā Alohuli ʻIae a me ka Hiaʻo)

 

Chapter 21

Subordinate Clause as Adverb (Ka ʻAwe Kāloko)

Ability (Hiki)

Ordinal Particles (Nā ʻĪkoi Huahelu Kaʻina)

The Other (Ka Unuhi ʻana iā "The Other", "My Other" a pēlā aku)

Subject Emphatic Particles (Na Huneʻano a me nā Huneʻaʻau)

Syllable Stress (Ke Kiko Poke Kālele a me ka ʻOkina Kauwaena)

Self-correctional Expressions (Nā Huahoʻololoiāhili)

 

Chapter 22

Nominalized Verbs (Ke Kiʻa Pepeke)

Indicating Before/After (me ka Manaʻo "Before/After")
Indicating When (me ka Manaʻo "When")
Indicating Intent (me ka Manaʻo "In Order To")

Distinguishing between "ʻAna" and "Ana" (Ka Hōʻokoʻa ʻana iā "ʻAna" a me "Ana")

Collective Noun Article and Pronoun

 

Chapter 23

Should/Must (Pono E)

Possessive Nought  (Ka Pepeke Nonoʻa Huahelu i Pani no ka Pepeke Painu)

Situational Emphasis (Ka Pepeke Kālele Kūlana)

Negating ʻOle (ʻOle)

 

Chapter 24

Abstract Article (He mau ʻAoʻao hou o ke Kaʻi Hōiloa "He")

Particles with Numerals (He mau ʻAoʻao hou o nā Heluhelu)

Situational Emphasis in Questions and Clauses (Ke Kālele Kūlana ma ka Nīnau a me ka Paukū)

Subordinate Clause with New Subjet (Ka Nīnau Pepeke Nonoʻa me ke Kāhulu Pepeke Piko)

 

Chapter 25

Indefinite and Abstract Particle in Subject ("He" a me "I" ma ke Poʻo)

Indefinite and Abstract Particle with Recipient ("He" a me "I" me "No/Na")

Become (Lilo - Become/Be)

Taken/Lost (Lilo - Taken/Lost to)

 

Chapter 26

Similarity (Like)

Locational Emphasis with Aia/Eia (Eia, Aia me nā Pepeke ʻOkoʻa)

Present Distant Tense Markers (Ka Māka Paina: "Ke-ala / Ke-maila")